Stigmabase LIBRARY

Keeping up-to-date on global exclusion

HIV

The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that infect humans. Over time, they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that HIV is untransmittable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load. Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS. | Wikipedia



La infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (VIH/sida)​ son un espectro de enfermedades causadas por la infección provocada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH).​ Tras la infección inicial, una persona puede no notar síntoma alguno o bien puede experimentar un periodo breve de cuadro tipo influenza.​ Típicamente, le sigue un periodo prolongado sin síntomas.​ A medida que la infección progresa, interfiere más con el sistema inmunitario, aumentando el riesgo de infecciones comunes como la tuberculosis, además de otras infecciones oportunistas y tumores que raramente afectan a las personas con un sistema inmunitario indemne.​ Estos síntomas tardíos de infección se conocen como sida,​ etapa que a menudo también está asociada con pérdida de peso.​


El VIH se contagia principalmente por sexo desprotegido (incluido sexo anal y oral), transfusiones de sangre contaminada, agujas hipodérmicas y de la madre al niño durante el embarazo, parto o lactancia. Algunos fluidos corporales, como la saliva y las lágrimas, no transmiten el VIH. Entre los métodos de prevención se encuentran el sexo seguro, los programas de intercambio de agujas, el tratamiento a los infectados y la circuncisión.​ La infección del bebé a menudo puede prevenirse al dar medicación antirretroviral tanto a la madre como el niño.​ No hay ninguna cura o vacuna; no obstante, el tratamiento antirretroviral puede retrasar el curso de la enfermedad y puede llevar a una expectativa de vida cercana a la normal.​ Se recomienda iniciar el tratamiento apenas se haga el diagnóstico.​ Sin tratamiento, el tiempo de vida promedio después de la infección es 11 años. | Wikipedia




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Keeping up-to-date on global exclusion



STIGMABASE is a canadian non-profit internet initiative dedicated to informing and raising awareness on the damaging effects of social exclusion and stigma around the world. The marginalization of individuals or categories of individuals is a too common phenomenon. Millions of people are facing this problem around the world and many complex factors are involved.

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